Pecans grown from seed should not true to kind. Which means a nut produced by a given variety won’t, when planted, produce a tree equivalent to the father or mother. In truth, each seedling tree is exclusive and can have extremely variable nut high quality. Therefore, to be able to propagate a tree of a given selection, buds or shoots from the parent tree must be grafted onto a seedling rootstock. The correct budding or grafting approach may vary with measurement of the rootstock/scion, experience of the worker, local weather and time of year. Often, individuals who propagate trees have their very own personal preferences with regard to propagation methods. As with many practices associated to pecan manufacturing, timing is necessary for successful propagation. Most industrial nurseries use open-pollinated seeds from home and/or native varieties that carry out effectively in a given area. In Georgia, the mostly used rootstock seed is ‘Elliott’ or ‘Curtis.’ ‘Elliott’ normally has good germination and develops good stem caliper relatively rapidly.
Curtis’ is similar to ‘Elliott’ however is extra cold tolerant and ought to be used for pecan rootstock within the northern part of the state. Regardless of the variety used, be sure that nuts are from the present season and freed from insects and illness. Pecan nuts ought to be stratified for six to eight weeks previous to planting. This may be done by putting the nuts in a container of peat moss or layering them with sand and peat moss. Stratified seed ought to be saved moist but not wetÃ‚ at a temperature of 35 degrees Fahrenheit. Stratification hastens germination as soon as the nuts are planted and helps the seedlings to emerge extra uniformly, facilitating the benefit of weed management within the nursery. Following stratification, nuts ought to be soaked for two to a few days prior to planting in a container of water to activate enzymes that stimulate development. A hose left dribbling into the container supplies oxygen, which helps to prevent the expansion of harmful fungi.
Additional measures to guard towards infection with seed-rotting pathogens embrace conserving the soaking nuts in 35-forty degree Fahrenheit temperatures and altering the water daily. If nuts are soaked at room temperature, the water needs to be changed each few hours. Pecan seeds must be planted from mid March to mid April for finest results. Seeds may be planted in a seedbed or in containers. There are advantages and disadvantages to each strategies. Just as every seed from an individual tree is not identical to the mum or dad, there’s a substantial amount of variation in rootstock, even from seed arising from the identical mother or father tree. This accounts for much of the variation in tree performance because the grafted tree develops and comes into full manufacturing. Seedbeds (Figure 1) provide simpler planting however tougher harvest of the timber. Fertility of the seedbed needs to be decided earlier than planting primarily based on soil test recommendations.
Seeds should be planted 4 to 6 inches apart in the row and 3 to 4 inches deep. Planting depth should be shallower in clay soils than in sandy soils. Round-shaped nut varieties corresponding to ‘Elliott’ and ‘Curtis’ might be planted simply with a mechanical planter and are the most typical varieties used as rootstock within the Southeastern United States. Large or oblong nut varieties are likely to hang up within the planter and have to be planted by hand. White plastic could also be laid in raised beds over the rows previous to planting so as to reduce weed competitors (Figure 2). Holes can then be punched into the plastic for planting the nuts. Fertilize first-year bushes by broadcasting 10-10-10 at a charge of fifty lbs N/acre before planting. In the second yr, apply 20-20-20 plus minor parts by injection by irrigation each two weeks at a price of 1 teaspoon/gallon. Weed management is one of the vital troublesome challenges to nursery production of pecans.
Following germination, however just earlier than seedling timber break the soil surface (five days to 2 weeks after planting, relying on weather, etc.), apply oryzalin herbicide (2-four qts/A) or paraquat (2.5-four pts/A) plus oryzalin. Paraquat is a contact herbicide without systemic activity and will solely harm tissue that it touches. Do not permit paraquat to touch emerged seedlings, because it could kill them. Oryzalin is a pre-emergence herbicide and could also be sprayed over the top of seedlings after emergence to stop emergence of grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds. After the above application, fluazifop (8-24 oz/A), sethoxydim (1-2.5 pts/A), or clethodim(6-eight oz/A) may be used for grass control. Apply bentazon (1.5-2 pts/A) for broadleaf weed control (morningglory, bristly starbur, coffee weed, ragweed and yellow nutsedge management). If yellow nutsedge is over 6-eight inches tall, a second application of bentazon seven to 10 days later may be wanted. Use bentazon with a crop oil at 2 pts/A.